Meaning, Definitions, Principles, Techniques, Criticism
Scientific management was propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who is the father, of Scientific Management. Apart from Taylor other contributors to S.M. include Frank B. Gilbreth , Morris L. Cooke, Henry L. Gantt and Harrington Emerson etc.
According to the definition given by F.W. Taylor
“ Scientific Management is concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way”.
Taylor experimented in three companies: Midvale Steel, Simonds Rolling Machine and Bethlehem Steel and on the basis of his observation and findings he has propounded these principles.
Principles of Scientific Management
There are four principles of scientific management.
i. Replacing rule of Thumb
Taylor has suggested the management as a science. Every decision to be taken or activities to be performed must be based on facts. He told that we should not stick with-old techniques, but strive to form new techniques. The best technique could be found after proper discussion between managers and workers.
ii. Harmony in group action
He told that inside the organization, there should be harmony among the workers and there should not be any dispute between the workers.
iii. Co-operation not individualism
It states that there should be co-operation among the worker and different departments. Since all departments are interdependent on each other so there should be a spirit of co-operation rather than internal competition.
iv. Maximum Output
Scientific management involves continuous increase in production and productivity instead of restricted production either by management or by workers.
v. Development of Workers
In scientific management, all workers should be developed to the fullest extent possible for their own and for the company’s highest prosperity. Development of workers requires their scientific selection and providing them training at the workplace.