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Span of Control Meaning, Definitions, Factors and Approaches   Meaning of Span of Control Span of control is also known as span of management or span of supervisor and span of authority. A manager cannot supervise the activities of the unlimited number of people. It is an important principle that states that there should be manageable number of subordinates under...

Centralization and Decentralization Meaning, Definitions, Merits and Demerits Centralization In some organizations, top managers make all the decisions. Lower-level managers merely carry out top management’s directives. At the other extreme, there are organizations in which decision making is pushed down to the managers who are closest to the action. The former...

Centralization and Decentralization Meaning, Definitions, Merits and Demerits Centralization and Decentralization Centralization In some organizations, top managers make all the decisions. Lower-level managers merely carry out top management’s directives. At the other extreme, there are organizations in which decision making is pushed down to the managers who are closest to the action. The former organizations are highly centralized, the latter are decentralized. The term centralization refers to the degree to which decision making...

Responsibility in Management Meaning, Definitions and Features Responsibility Responsibility is not merely duty that is assigned but an obligation that the duty is performed. Responsibility comes into existence because a person with authority, requires assistance from another and delegates authority to him for the performance of needed specific work. The acceptance...

Organisational Structure and Design Meaning, Definitions and Types In a simple term, structure is the pattern in which various parts or compounds are interrelated or interconnected. Thus, organization structure is the pattern of relationships among various components or parts of the organisation. This prescribes the relationships among various activities and positions....

Co-ordination Meaning, Definition, Features, Techniques, Essentials, Needs and Types Co-ordination Concept & Definition Co-ordination is the unification, integration, synchronisation of the efforts of group members so as to provide unity of action in the pursuit of common goals. Co-ordination is a necessary effort to solve conflict in the,organisation. Some important...

Controlling  Meaning, Definition, Elements, Process, Types, Techniques and Barriers   Controlling Concept & Definitions Controlling is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, directing and staffing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standers are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in desired manner. Some important definition of controlling is given below. According to Terry and Franklin “Controlling...

Direction Meaning, Definition, Features, Principles and Techniques Concept and Definition Direction is the process in which the managers instruct, guide and oversee the performance of the workers to achieve predetermined goals. Infact managers play a significant role in direction by directing their subordinates the way they should do their work to achieve organisational...

Concept of Organization and Organizing Organizing comes after the completion of the creative phase of planning through which managers are able to define what is to be done; now the question arises who will do it. Then it is also the responsibility of managers to define who will do what and what will be the relationship among these persons. • Organizing in general...

Planning (BBA/MBA Notes) Meaning, Nature, Features, Types, Process and Barriers Planning Planning is the fundamental/primary function of management. Planning is the unction that determines in advance what should be done. It is looking ahead and rearing for the future. In other words it is the determination of what is to be done, how and where it is to be done, who is to do it and how results are to be evaluated.  It serves as basis for the other major functions of management. Important Definitions According to Koontz and 0′ Donnell “Planning...