Planning – Meaning, Nature, Features, Types, Process and Barriers

Types of Plans

1. Standing Plans and Single Use Plans

(i) Standing Plans

  • Long term approachable plan which is prepared by the top level managers of organization.
  • Standing Use Plans are based upon the primary objectives of organization
  • Examples of such plans are organizational mission and long term objectives, strategies, policies, procedures and rules.

(ii) Single Use Plan

  • Are relevant for specified time and after the time is over thee plans are again formulated for next period.
  • Generally these plans are derived from standing plans.
  • Examples of such plans are projects, budgets, quotas, targets etc.

types of plan

2. Strategic and Operational Plans

These plans are derived from standing plans; strategic plans-major ones, define the long term course of an action; Operational plans-Projects, budgets, minor plans mission/purpose-objectives-strategies-policies procedures/rules programmes /projects-budgets- quotas/targets.

(i) Strategic Plan

  • Strategic plan begins with the organization’s mission.
  • It is an outline of steps designed with the goals of the entire organization as a whole in mind.
  • It looks ahead over the next two, three, five years to move the organization, where it currently is to where it wants to be.
  • It is prepared by, top management and become the framework for the low level management.

(ii) Operational Plan

  • It is the one that a manager uses to accomplish his/her job responsibilities.
  • It is done at the divisional and sectional levels and majority there is involvement of supervisors, team leader and managers at different departments.
  • Operational plans are designed to support tactical plans.
  • Operational plans are ongoing or continuous plans.


3. Tactical and Contingency Plans

(i) Tactical Plan

  • It is concerned with what and how the lower level units within each division must do.
  • It is concerned with shorter time frames and narrower scopes than strategic plans.
  • Short term goals are considered by Tactical Plan, and their time of span is not more than one year.
  • It is the responsibility of middle level manager to identify specific tactical actions.

 (ii) Contingency Plans

  • It is the plan to cope up the unpredictable changes of environment and uncertainty.
  • These plans are the result of intelligence of managers
  • An intelligent manager always remain ready to face the challenges and keeps other options also open.

contingency planning

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