iii. Career planning
It is a process of integrating an employee’s needs and aspirations with organisational needs. The HRD philosophy suggests that managers should inform their employees about the growth plans of the organisation and assist them in planning their careers within the organisation. This helps people in getting a sense of belonging to the organisation w hen they feel trusted and understand the role they are playing in the achievement of organisational objectives.
iv. Feedback and performance couselling
Feedback of performance data can be used to monitor individual development and for identifying training needs. Career counselling and verbal rewards are integral parts of review discussions between the superior and the subordinate.
Counseling is a two way process in which a counselor, usually a superior provides advice and assistance to his subordinates. There are many occasions when an employee feels the need for counseling. Counselling is the process of advising and employee so as to enable him to overcome His emotional problems. According to Keith Davis, Counselling means, “discussion of an emotional problem with an employee with the general objective of minimising it. This definition reveals that counselling involves discussion in which the counsellor listens sympathetically to the problem of the employee. It is a method of understanding and helping people who are upset emotionally. As counselling involves discussion, it forms a process of communication. Effective counselling requires communication skills.
Performance counselling involves assisting the employee to understand his, own performance, factors contributing to it, contribution of his own strengths and Weaknesses, and) assist him to identify the extent to which he can influence the outcome of his work and hereby plan for improving his competence and performance. ! The objective of performance counselling is to identify development needs of subordinates and to draw a systematic plan of action.
Counselling is concerned with emotional problem. It has no concern with other job problem such as technical.``
v. Role analysis
Role Analysis is a participatory process which aims at defining the work content of a role In relation to all those with whom the role occupant has significant interaction in the performance of his job.
Jobs have to be analysed for proper planning of work which is necessary for improving efficiency. Such an analysis is known as job/task analysis. It is very useful for semiskilled and skilled Jobs. However, the nature of managerial/supervisory job is more complex and interdependent on the performance and expectations of all those who are concerned with the accomplishment of the tasks in a work situation and thus one is judged not only on individual contribution but also on his role in channelizing the willing cooperation and effort of those who are concerned.
Training has gained importance in present day environment where jobs are complex and change rapidly. Training is a learning experience designed to achieve a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on the job. Employee development, on the other hand, is a future-oriented training process, focusing on the personal growth of the employee. To illustrate: a bank officer can receive training to improve skills on a latest computer, whereas development may come from a workshop in ‘Effective Interpersonal Skills’. Both training and development focus on learning. To be effective, training should be conducted in a systematic way – backed up by careful needs’ assessment, solid programme design and thorough evaluation of results. Training programmes should nor he designed as quick fixes tor organisational problems, nor should they depend on faddish techniques just because they are popular now and arc followed by our next-door-neighbour. Instead, training should be planned to meet the specific needs of the organisation and its employees. (It should be viewed as a continuous learning exercise which is designed to help employees and managers to stay current and to anticipate future needs.) To survive and grow in a competitive environment, organisations have to motivate their employees to get ready for all kinds of future challenges. An emphasis on continual training and education can help firms in this direction.
vii. Job enrichment
Job enrichment implies increasing the contents of a job or the deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope and challenge is work. ‘Job enrichment is a motivational technique which emphasizes the need for challenging and interesting work. It leads to a vertically enhanced job by adding functions from other organizational levels, making it contain more variety and challenge and offer autonomy and pride to the job-holder.
Herzberg gave greater emphasis on job enrichment in his two-factor theory. Job enrichment implies increasing the contents of a job or the deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope and challenge in work. ‘Job enrichment is a motivational technique which emphasizes the need for challenging and interesting work. It suggests that jobs be redesigned so that intrinsic satisfaction is derived from doing the job. In its best applciations, it leads to a vertically enhanced job by adding functions from other organizational levels, making it contain more variety and challenge and offer autonomy and pride to the employee. The job-holder is given a measure of discretion in making operational decisions concerning his job. In this sense, he gains a feeling of higher status, influence and power.
viii. Job rotation
Job rotation refers to the practices of shifting people from one job to another within a working group so that there is some variety and relief from the boredom of routine. Herzberg characterized this approach as merely substituting “one zero for another zero” as it implies horizontal or lateral transfer to a job of the same level and status.
ix. Quality circles
A quality circle is a small group of employees who meet periodically to identify, analyses and solve quality and other work related problems in their area. Generally speaking, members of a particular circle should be from the same work area, or who perform similar work so that the problems they select will be familiar to all of them. The ideal size of group is six to eight members.
Features of Quality Circles
1. It is a voluntary group of employees. Members join circle on their own. There is no pressure from management.
2. Size of a quality circle varies between six to ten. Members generally hail from a particular work area.
3. Members meet at periodic intervals to discuss quality related problems.
4. Each circle has its own agenda. It has its own terms of reference, selects its own problems and offers recommendations for solving them.
5. The quality circle, by its very nature, exists to identify, analyze and solve quality related problems.
x. Human resource planning
Human resource planning/Manpower planning is a process through which an organisation ensures that right people, at right place and at right time are available. Manpower planning involves determination of future, manpower needs to help management in being proactive. It also help the management in understanding the gap between available manpower and the future needs. This understanding plays an important role in bridging the gap- It is primacy in nature and all other staffing functions follow it. It puts the objectives of the organisation on paper and plans into the number and kind of personnel needed to accomplish those objectives.
xi. Organization development
Organisation Development is an organization-wide, planned effort managed from the top, placing emphasis on making appropriate intervention in the ongoing activities of the organisation. OD provides a normative framework within which changes in the climate and culture of the organisation towards harnessing the human potential for realization of organisational objectives is brought out. Thus, OD is a planned change strategy aimed at developing and revitalizing the adaptive capacities of organisations so as to enable them respond to their internal and external environments in e pre-active manner. OD exorcises include team-building programme, interpersonal sensitivity, role clarity, management by objectives and stress management.
xii. Rewards and employee welfare
Rewarding employees performance over and above their normal wages and salaries is considered to be an important task of the HRD, In any organization,the managers and workers have similar motivations, although the manager controls the means of achieving need satisfaction at work and each employee seeks self-development to go as far as possible on his own ability. But frustration, slow work and depression come in the way of need satisfaction. One way of overcoming of such frustration is rewarding the efficient workers for their work which may be termed as incentive It will lead to better utilisation of human resources at all levels, which is the cheapest, quickest and surest means of increasing productivity.
xiii. Quality of work life
The conditions under which the workers work and live, assume the form of another important factor contributing to workers satisfaction or otherwise and consequently the job satisfaction. In order of priorities, it comes next to the earnings of a worker in the Indian context. For an employee to be able to work at his best, it is necessary to understand that inadequate working and living conditions produce adverse mental and physical effect on the employee, ultimately causing decline in the efficiency.
xiv. Recruitment, selection and placement
Both recruitment and selection are integrated and interrelated terms. Recruitment involves locating, identifying and attracting capable applicants and selection involves selecting the suitable candidates and rejecting the unfit ones. Placement comes after the candidate has been selected. After selection the candidate is placed on the job for which he has been selected and this is known as placement. Placement is the process of assigning a specific job to each one of the selected candidates. It involves assigning a specific rank and responsibility to an individual. Placement refers to the allocation of people to jobs. It includes initial assignment of new employees and promotion, transfer or demotion of present employees. It is the actual posting of an employee to a specific job. It is very important and necessary for an employee that the departmental head or supervisor accepts him and has faith in his abilities and potentials that he will be able to fulfill the job requirements.