Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Posted on Apr 17 2018 - 11:04pm by admin

MASLOW’S  NEED  HIERARCHY

The most widely recognized theory of motivation is the needs hierarchy theory. Abraham Maslow suggested that people have a complex set of exceptionally strong needs, which can be arranged in a hierarchy. These needs are:

  1. Physiological needs

The  physiological  needs  are  at the top  of the hierarchy    because   they tend  to  have  the  highest   strength    until   they  are  reasonably    satisfied.    Until  these   needs   are satisfied   to the degree  needed   for the efficient  operation   of the body, the majority   of a person’s activities  will probably   be at this level, and the other  levels will provide  him with little motivation. It includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs.

  1. Safety/Security

The needs for safety, stability and absence of pain, threat or illness are all security needs. Like physiological needs, unsatisfied security needs cause people to be preoccupied with satisfying them. Managers who believe that security needs are most important they focus on rules, job security and fringe benefits. Such managers may not encourage innovation by employees and will not reward risk taking. Employees who are most concerned about security will follow rules strictly.

  1. Social/Affiliation

After the first  two needs  are satisfied,   social needs  become   important    in the need  hierarchy.   Since  man  is a social being,  he has  a need  to belong  and  to be  accepted   by various   groups.   When  social   needs   become   dominant,    a  person   Will strive   for  meaningful relations   With others. In organization context when affiliation needs are the primary source of motivation, people value the workplace as an opportunity for finding and establishing warm and friendly interpersonal relationships.

  1. Esteem

The esteem needs are concerned with self-respect, self-respect, a feeling of personal worth, feeling of being unique, and recognition. Satisfaction of these needs produces feelings of self-confidence, prestige, power and control.

  1. Self-actualisation

This level represents the culmination of all the lower, intermediate and  higher needs of human. Self-actualisation      is  the  need   to  maximize    one’s   potential. whatever  it may  be.  This  is related   With the development    of intrinsic    capabilities    which  lead people to     seek  Situations    that   can   utilize   their  potential.    This   includes    competence    which implies  control  over  environmental    factors,  both  physical  and  social.  and  achievement.   A man with high intensity   of achievement    needs  will be restless   unless   he can  find fulfillment   in doing what he is fit to do.

Assumptions of the theories :

  1. A satisfied need does not motivate. When one need is satisfied another need emerges to take its place, so people are always striving to satisfy some need.
  2. The needs network for most people is complex, with several affecting the behavior of each person at any one time.
  3. In general, lower level needs must be satisfied before higher level needs are activated sufficiently to drive behavior.
  4. There are more ways to satisfy higher level needs than lower level needs.


Merits

  1. Maslow need hierarchy is viewed as a simple and straightforward analysis of human motivation with human needs forming the basis for analysis. This theory has found wide acceptance among practicing managers for its logical exposition and easy to understand format.
  2. The theory points out a fact which ignored in the conventional approach to the management of people, that a satisfied need is not a motivator of behvaiour.
  3. Maslow has maintained a reasonably sensible and realistic view of human nature. He has insisted that process of self actualization cannot occur automatically as it requires initiatives, desires and efforts on the part of the individuals.

Demerits

  1. The hierarchy of basic needs is not always fixed. Different people may have different orders. For example, in case of creative people like singers, painters etc. their self actualization needs may become the dominant motivation force even before their lower order needs are satisfied.
  2. There is lack of direct cause and effect relationship between need and behavior. Thus a particular need may cause behavior in different ways in different persons.
  3. The level of satisfaction for particular need may differ form person to person. A person tries for his higher level need when his lower order need is reasonably satisfied.

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