The term group dynamics contains two terms : Group and Dynamics.
Group is basically a collectivity of two or more persons. Dynamics comes from Greek word meaning force.
Thus Groups Dynamics refers to the interaction of forces between group members in a social situation.
Group Dynamics encompasses the dynamics of interaction patterns within the group, the subtle and the non-subtle pressures exerted by group members, the manner in which decisions are made in the group, how work gets done and how member’s needs are satisfied. Understanding of all these will enable managers to manage groups effectively leading to organizational effectiveness.
Concept of Group
Group is a component to study organizational behavior. Groups found in each and every organization whether big or small and effectively influence individual and the organizational development. Therefore, it is very important to know what is group, how do they form and how to they affect organizational functioning.
1. According to Stephen Robbins
A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
2. According to David Horton Smith
A group is the largest set of two or more individuals who are jointly characterized by a network of relevant communications, a shared sense of collective identity an done or more shared dispositions with associated normative strength.
3. According to Homans
It is a number of people who communicate face-to-face with one another over a span of time
4. According to Schein
A group is any number of people which interact with one another and are psychologically aware of one another and perceive themselves to be a group.
5. According to Nelson and Quick
A group is two or more people having common interests, objectives and continuing interaction.
6. According to Robert Kreitner
A group has two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms and goals and have a common identity.
Why Do People join Groups?
Organisation is the collection of groups that are focused towards achieving the mutual goal of achieving success for the company.Thus people join groups to satisfy their mutual interests.
Groups provide safety to the members, and protection against a common enemy. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group.
Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members.
Groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth.That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give Increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves.
Groups can fulfill social needs. People enjoy the regular interaction that comes with group membership. For many people, these on-the-Job interactions are their primary source for fulfilling their needs for affiliation.
What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in numbers.
6. Goal Achievement
There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task-there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to complete a job. In such instances, management will rely on the use of a formal group.
7. Social Needs
Being in graphs helps satisfy people’s basic need to be with others. It helps them in relating themselves to other people in terms of thinking, feeling and behaving.