The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 – UGC NET Paper 2 Code 55 Notes

The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 UGC NET Paper 2 Code 55 Study Material Labour Laws Study Material Introduction “Gratuity” is a retiral benefit which is paid by an employer to an employee in consideration of his past services at the time of his retirement or after his death. In the case of employment coming […]

Staffing – Meaning, Definitions, Need, Factors, Process

Staffing Meaning, Definitions, Characteristics, Need, Factors, Process Staffing is the process of acquiring, developing, employing, appraising, remunerating and retaining people so that right type of people are available at right positions and at right time in the organization. Staffing is a very important function of management. No organization can be successful unless it can fill […]

Types of Separation in HRM- Resignation, Retirement, Layoff, Retrenchment

Types of Separation in HRM   Resignation It is a voluntary separation initiated by the employee himself. An employee may resign on grounds of ill-health, marriage, pregnancy, better opportunities in other organization etc. Retirement This is the common form of separation of employees form the organization. There are three kinds of Retirement: i. Compulsory Retirement […]

Promotion, Transfer, Demotion

Promotion, Transfer, Demotion   Promotion Advancement within an organisation is ordinarily labeled as promotion which involves a change from one job to another that is better in terms of status and responsibility. Ordinarily, the change to the higher job is accompanied by increased pay and privileges, but not always. The term ‘dry promotion’ refers to […]

Bureaucracy – Meaning, Features, Advantages and Problems

Bureaucracy Meaning, Features, Advantages and Problems A bureaucracy is an administrative or social system that relies on a set of rules and procedures, separation of functions and a hierarchical structure in implementing controls over an organization, government or social system. Large administrative staffs are most common in large organizations that need standardized rules and procedures […]

Hawthorne Experiments – Illumination Experiments, Mass Interviewing …

Hawthorne Experiments   The Hawthorne plant of the General Electric Company, Chicago was manufacturing telephone system bell. It employed about 30,000 employees at the time of experiments. There was dissatisfaction among the workers and productivity was not upto the mark. In order to find out the real cause behind this, a team was constituted led […]

Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management

Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management Henry Fayol (1841-1925) was a French mining engineer ;  director of mines who developed   general theory of business administration. He was the most influential contributor to modern concept of management. He proposed the five primary functions of management (Planning, Organising, Controlling, Directing, Coordination). And also given the 14 principles of […]

Scientific Management – Meaning, Principles, Techniques, Criticism

Scientific Management Meaning, Definitions, Principles, Techniques, Criticism Scientific management was propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who is the father, of Scientific Management. Apart from Taylor other contributors to S.M. include Frank B. Gilbreth , Morris L. Cooke, Henry L. Gantt and Harrington Emerson etc. According to the definition given by F.W. Taylor “ Scientific […]

Stress Management – Individual and Organizational Coping Strategies

Stress Management Stress management is required when an individual is unable to cope with the demanding environment. This inability generated anxiety and produces defensive behavior and stress symptoms. Therefore, the actions are required for developing adaptive behavior so as to overcome the consequences of stress. Such actions may be taken at individual level as well […]

Stress & Stress Management – Meaning, Definitions, Features, Causes, Burnout, Rustout

Stress  and  Stress Management Modern life is full of stress. Stress on individuals ranges from personal day-to-day life to their organizational activities. Urbanisation, industrialisation, and increase in scale of operations in the society are causing increasing stresses. Different psychologists and physiologists have defined stress differently. In simple words, stress refers to pressures or tensions people […]

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