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Common difficulties in decision making/Problems in Decision Making Some common difficulties in decision making and implementing them are as follows: i. Incomplete information This is a major problem for every manager. Lack of information leaves a manager adrift in a sea of uncertainty. Not only this, most decisions involve too many complex variables for one person...

Models of Decision Making Behavior Rationality in Decision Making The question of rationality has long engaged the attention of decision theorist. Some of them hold the view that a manager is completely rational in his decisions. Some say that he is completely irrational. Still other say that he exercises limited rationality. These three types of views on decision-making...

Approaches to choose best alternative in Decision Making After evaluation of various alternatives, the next step is the selection of the best solution. It requires an ability to draw distinction between seen and unseen forces, between tangible and intangible and intangible forces between facts and guesses. The ability to select the best course of action from several...

Types of Separation in HRM   Resignation It is a voluntary separation initiated by the employee himself. An employee may resign on grounds of ill-health, marriage, pregnancy, better opportunities in other organization etc. Retirement This is the common form of separation of employees form the organization. There are three kinds of Retirement: i. Compulsory Retirement An...

Bureaucracy Meaning, Features, Advantages and Problems A bureaucracy is an administrative or social system that relies on a set of rules and procedures, separation of functions and a hierarchical structure in implementing controls over an organization, government or social system. Large administrative staffs are most common in large organizations that need standardized...

Hawthorne Experiments   The Hawthorne plant of the General Electric Company, Chicago was manufacturing telephone system bell. It employed about 30,000 employees at the time of experiments. There was dissatisfaction among the workers and productivity was not upto the mark. In order to find out the real cause behind this, a team was constituted led by Elton Mayo,...

Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management Henry Fayol (1841-1925) was a French mining engineer ;  director of mines who developed   general theory of business administration. He was the most influential contributor to modern concept of management. He proposed the five primary functions of management (Planning, Organising, Controlling, Directing, Coordination)....

Scientific Management Meaning, Definitions, Principles, Techniques, Criticism Scientific management was propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who is the father, of Scientific Management. Apart from Taylor other contributors to S.M. include Frank B. Gilbreth , Morris L. Cooke, Henry L. Gantt and Harrington Emerson etc. According to the definition given...

Stress Management Stress management is required when an individual is unable to cope with the demanding environment. This inability generated anxiety and produces defensive behavior and stress symptoms. Therefore, the actions are required for developing adaptive behavior so as to overcome the consequences of stress. Such actions may be taken at individual level as...

Stress  and Stress Management Modern life is full of stress. Stress on individuals ranges from personal day-to-day life to their organizational activities. Urbanisation, industrialisation, and increase in scale of operations in the society are causing increasing stresses. Different psychologists and physiologists have defined stress differently. In simple words,...