Staffing – Meaning, Definitions, Need, Characteristics, Factors and Importance
Staffing is the process of acquiring, developing, employing, appraising, remunerating and retaining people so that right type of people are available at right positions and at right time in the organization.
Staffing is a very important function of management. No organization can be successful unless it can fill and keep filled the various positions with the right type of employees. Managers would be more competent and effective if they are carefully selected and trained. Staffing provides manpower, which is the key input of an organization.
Staffing functions has several sub functions:
1. Recruitment, or getting applicants for the jobs as they open up.
2. Selection of the best qualified from those who seek the jobs.
3. Training those who need further instructions to perform their work effectively or to qualify for promotions.
4. Performance appraisal, since it serves as the basis for job change or promotion, and
5. Administration of compensation plans, since it is an important factor in both getting and holding qualified people.
According to Koontz and O’Donnell
The managerial function of staffing involves manning the organizational structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal and development of personnel to fill the roles designed into the structure.
According to S. Benjamin
The process involved in identifying, assessing, placing, evaluating and directing individuals at work.
According to McFarland
Staffing is the function by which managers build an organisation through the recruitment, selection and development of individuals as capable employees.
Need for Staffing
1. Increasing size of organization
In a large organization, there are several positions. Systematic programmes for the selection, training and appraisal of employees are required for efficient functioning of the enterprise. This has increased the significance of staffing.
2. Advancement of technology
Significant improvements have taken place in technology. In order to make use of the latest technology, the appointment of right type of persons is necessary. Right personnel can be procured, developed and maintained for new jobs only if the management performs its staffing function effectively.
3. Long-range needs for manpower
In order to execute the long-term plans, management must determine the manpower requirements well in advance. It is also necessary to develop managers for succession in future. The need for staffing has increased due to shortage of good managerial talent and high rate of labour turnover.
4. High wage bill
Personnel cost accounts for a major portions of operating costs today. Efficient performance of the staffing function is essential to make the best use of personnel. For example, if right type of people are selected and trained, management can obtain optimum results from the expenses incurred on recruitment, selection and training.
5. Trade unionism
Efficient system for staffing has become necessary to negotiate effectively with organizations of executives. With the spread of education, executives have become increasingly aware of their prerogatives. Collective bargaining has brought about change in their attitudes. Separation of ownership from management requires a more professional approach towards the staffing function.
6. Human relations movement
Enlightened employers have come to recognize the dignity of labour-increasing awareness of the role of human factor in industry. Now managers can use the knowledge of behavioural sciences in molding the behaviours of employees in the right direction. At the executive level, there is greater need for non-financial motivation. By performing the staffing function well, management can show the significance it attaches to the human resources in all organization.
Characteristics of Staffing
1. Staffing is one of the functions of management, but it is treated as a functional area of business management or separate discipline/subject.
2. Other terms used for staffing are personnel management, personnel function. Human Resource Management (HRM), or Human Resource Development (HRD).
3. It is concerned with human resource in the organisation. It is the management of men (employees, workers, peoples, staff, or human resource) at work.
4. Staffing function is related to employment of personnel of all types- managerial as well as operative in the organization.
5. Staffing includes a variety of activities through which the organization tries to ensure that various positions remain filled by the most suitable personnel.
6. It is a continuous function. As per need, staffing activities are performed on a continuous basis.
7. It is a supporting function to other departments. As a separate managerial function, it performs human resource activities for all departments and divisions of the organisation.
8. It is the major determinant of success of any business enterprise.
9. Staffing can be applied to all types of activities, such as economic (business), social, political, religious, and so forth.
10. A manager who performs staffing functions is known as personnel/human resource manager and the department that concerns with stalling functions is labelled as human resource department.
11. It is a challenging job as it deals with the human being, the complex man. Organization behaviour is useful to understand, modify and control human behaviour.
12. Staffing function is performed by every manager in the organization like other managerial functions viz. planning, organizing, directing and controlling, though they receive considerable staff assistance in performing staffing function.