Social Security Measures

Scope of Social Security
The scope of social security is very wide though the social security programmes differ from country to country. Generally, social security schemes are of the following types:

1. Social Insurance
It is a mechanism through which benefits are provided to the contributors (out of contributions made by them, the employers and the government) necessary for satisfying wants during old age, sickness, unemployment and other contingencies of life. Provident Fund and Group Insurance are examples of this type.

2. Social Assistance
Under it the cost of the benefits provided is financed fully by the Government without any contributions from workers and employers. However, benefits are paid after judging the financial position of the beneficiary.
Old-age pension is an example.
The Social Security (Minimum Standards) Convention No. 102 of the I.L.O. prescribes the following components of social security:
a) Medical case
b) Sickness benefit
c) Old age benefits or retirement benefits
d) Family benefit
e) Maternity benefit
f) Invalidity benefit
g) Survivor’s benefit

3. Public Service
Such programmes are usually financed directly by the Government from its general revenue in the form of cash payments or services to every member of the community falling within a defined category. The examples of such programmes are national health service providing medical care for every person, old age pension, pension for invalids, survivors pension to widow or orphan, and so on.

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