Meaning, Principles, Techniques, Contributions and Criticism
Scientific management was propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who is the father, of Scientific Management. Taylor experimented in three companies: Midvale Steel, Simonds Rolling Machine and Bethlehem Steel and on the basis of his observation and findings he has propounded these principles. Taylor has put the emphasis on solving managerial problems in a scientific way, often,he is called as father of scientific management and his contributions as the principles of scientific management.
According to Taylor
Scientific Management is concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way.
Principles of Scientific Management
There are five principles of scientific management.
• Replacing rule of Thumb
Taylor has suggested the management as a science. Every decision to be taken or activities to be performed must be based on facts. He told that we should not stick with-old techniques, but strive to form new techniques. The best technique could be found after proper discussion between managers and workers.
• Harmony in group action
He told that inside the organization, there should be harmony among the workers and there should not be any dispute between the workers.
• Co-operation not individualism
It states that there should be co-operation among the worker and different departments. Since all departments are interdependent on each other so there should be a spirit of co-operation rather than internal competition.
• Maximum Output
Scientific management involves continuous increase in production and productivity instead of restricted production either by management or by workers.
• Development of Workers
In scientific management, all workers should be developed to the fullest extent possible for their own and for the company’s highest prosperity. Development of workers requires their scientific selection and providing them training at the workplace.
Techniques of Scientific Management
There are following techniques of scientific management.
(i) Work study
This is the study of finding the best possible way of performing a specific job. While conducting the method study all the responsible factors must be duly considered.
(ii) Time study
This is the study of finding the standard or optimum time to be taken to perform a given task or to complete an activity. Time study is very useful in management because performance appraisal of the worker can be possible only after knowing the standard time for completing a task.
(iii) Motion study
This is the study to eliminate or reduce the unnecessary motions of the workers during the work, so that the speed of work can be increased.
(iv) Fatigue study
This study is to know about the frequency and duration of interval given to worker between the work schedule. Since after continuous work, the workers are tired so rest or interval is necessary to improve their performance.