Organizational Behavior Concept
Organizational Behaviour is concerned with that aspect of human behavior which is relevant for organizational performance. It studies human behavior at individual level, group level and organizational level. It applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups and the effect of organization structure in behavior towards the end of making organizations work more effectively. The study of O.B. improves people’s understanding and ability to work together as a team and to achieve organizational goals effectively.
According to Robbins
O.B. is a field of study that investigate the impact that individuals, groups and structure have, on behavior within organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving organization’s effectiveness.
According to Aldag and Brief
O.B. is a branch of the social sciences that seeks to build theories that can be applied to predicting, understanding and controlling behavior in work organizations.
According to Callahan
Organization behavior is subset of management activities concerned with under-standing, predicting and influencing individual behavior in organizational settings.
According to Joe Kelly
O.B. is concerned with the study of the behavior and attitudes of man in an organizational setting, the organization’s effects on his perception, feelings and actions and particularly on his behavior for the achievement of the organization’s purposes.
According to Newstrom
O.B. is systematic and careful application of knowledge about how people, as individuals and as groups, act within organizations.
According to Fred Luthans
Organizational behavior is the understanding, prediction and management of human behavior in organizations.
According to Ivancevuch, Knonopaske and Matteson
Organizational Behaviour is the study of human behavior, attitudes and performance within an organizational setting.
According to Moorhead and Griffin
Organizational Behavior is the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and between the organizations itself.
Nature of Organizational Behaviour
Organization are meant for the benefits of both employers and employees. Organisation is a social system that is formed due to mutual interest and ethics. Organisational behavior is emerging as a separated field of study. Therefore, its nature is likely to change over the period of time. However, its present nature can be identified as follows :
1. Field of sturdy and not a discipline
Organisational behavior can be treated as a distinct field of study and not a discipline or even emerging discipline. A discipline is an accepted science with a theoretical foundation that serves as the basis for research and analysis. O.B because of its broad base, recent emergence, and interdisciplinary orientation, is not accepted as science.
2. Predicts human behavior
It is not a study of emotional feelings of employee. It is to explain and predict human behavior of people in organisations.
3. Interdisciplinary approach
O.B is basically an interdisciplinary approach i.e. it draws the knowledge from different disciplines like psychology, sociology and anthropology, economics, political science, law and history.
Organizational behavior deals with the behavior of people at different levels i.e. individuals, groups and organizations. Behavior attributable at each of these levels can be both identified and isolated.
5. Science and art
The basic objective of OB is to make application of various researches to solve the organizational problems particularly related to human behavior aspect. Unlike the pure science which concentrated on fundamental researches. OB concentrates on applied researches. Though many of the researches may be carried on in laboratory situations and controlled conditions, they are meant for general application in organizational analysis. Thus, organizational behavior is both science as well as art.
6. Normative Science
OB is a normative science. A normative science unlike the positive science suggests what are acceptable to people and society. This depends upon values of society which cannot be explained by a positive science that suggests only cause and effect relationships.
7. Humanistic and Optimistic
OB focuses the attention on people from humanistic point in view. It is based on the belief that needs and motivation of people are of high concern. There is an acceptance of the value of the individual as a thinking, feeling organism and without these considerations, thee organization may not be fully operational as a social entity. Also there is optimism about the innate potential of man to be independent, creative , productive and capable of contributing positively to the objectives of the organisation. The man will actualize this potential if proper conditions and environments are given to him.
8. Orientation towards Organizational Objective
Behavior is rational and oriented to organizational objectives. Different objectives exist in organizations but OB tries to integrate them. Once the organizational objectives are achieved other objectives such as individual and group objectives are also achieved simultaneously.
9. Total system approach
Organization is a system where different variables are linked to one another. The systems approach is an integrative approach which takes into account all the variables affecting organizational functioning. OB does not take man in isolation but as the product of socio-psychological factors. Behaviour goes by psychological framework, interpersonal orientation group influence, social and cultural factors. Thus man’s native is quite complex and OB by applying systems approach tries to find solution of this complexity.
OB is all pervasive in nature since organizations do not exist without people. Wherever people exist there changes occur hence managers have to ensure continuity in organizations by influencing their behavior for successful accomplishment of objectives set for organisations.
Changes of human behavior is perpetual and continuous. Managers have to ensure welfare to people by implementing the changes that occur from time to time by moulding people to the overall system of organisations.
Individuals or groups adapt themselves to the changes occur in organizational environment. Their behavior change with changes occurring in environment. OB considers this factor and develops suitable techniques that managers have to observe while supervising the human factor.
Evolution of OB
Organizational behavior was evolved through different approaches initiated by different theorists. The Greek philosopher Plato wrote about the essence of leadership. Aristotle addressed the topic of persuasive communication. The writings of 16th century Italian philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli laid the foundation for contemporary work on organizational power and politics. In 1776, Adam Smith advocated a new form of organizational structure based on the division of labour. One hundred years later, German sociologist Max Weber wrote about rational organizations and initiated discussion of charismatic leadership. Soon after, Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the systematic use of goal setting and rewards to motivate employees. In the 1920s, Australian-born Harvard professor Elton Mayo and his colleagues conducted productivity studies at Western Electric’s Hawthorne plant in the United States. With this epoch making study the focus of organisational studies shifted to analysis of how human factors and psychology affected organisations. This shift of focus in the study of organisations was called the Hawthorne Effect. The Human Relations Movement focused on teams, motivation, and the actualization of goals of individuals within organisations. The Human Relations Movement focused on teams, motivation, and the actualization of goals of individuals within organisations.
Origin to the study of Organisational Behaviour can trace its roots back to Max Weber and earlier organisational studies, it is generally considered to have begun as an academic discipline with the advent of scientific management in the 1890’s, with Taylorism representing the peak of the movement. Thus, it was Fredrick Winslow Taylor who introduced the systematic use of goal setting and rewards to motivate employees that could be considered as the starting of the academic discipline of Organisational Behaviour.
Proponents of scientific management held that rationalizing the organization with precise sets of instructions and time-motion studies would lead to increased productivity. Studies of different compensation systems were also carried out to motivate workers.
Studies conducted by prominent scholars like Chester Barnard, Henri Fayol, Mary Parker Follett, Frederick Herzberg, Abraham Mas low, David Mc Cellan and Victor Vroom contributed to the growth of Organisational Behaviour as a discipline.