Job analysis is a formal and detailed examination of jobs. It is a systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job.
According to US Labour
Job analysis is the process of determining, by observation and study, and reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of a specific job. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job and the skills, abilities and responsibilities required of the worker for a successful performance and which differentiates one job from all others.
According to Flippo
Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job descriptions and job specifications.
According to R.J.Harvey
Job analysis involves gathering data about observable job behaviours, and delineating the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics needed to perform the job.
According to R. Wayne Mondy et el.
Job analysis is the systematic process of determining the skills, duties and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization.
According to Michael Armstrong
Job analysis is the process of collecting, analyzing, and setting out information about the content of jobs in order to provide the basis for a job description and data for the recruitment, training, job evaluation and performance management.
Thus, job analysis involves the process of identifying the nature of a job (job description) and the qualities of the likely job holder (job specification).In every organization, different types of personnel are required to perform different types of jobs. Job analysis provides the knowledge of nature and requirement of different jobs so that the suitable candidate can be found out.
Job analysis is a process of understanding, collecting and analyzing relevant facts of a job and the characteristics of the person who is likely to perform the job.
Job Analysis = Job Description + Job Specification
The Workman Power Commission in U.S.A has suggested a four point job analysis formula to be used in making an accurate and useful job analysis.The points include in the formula are:
- What the worker does?
- How he does it ?
- Why he does it ?
- How much of skill is required for doing it ?
Important terms in Job Analysis
It is group of tasks positions involving same duties, responsibilities, knowledge and skills. Each job has definite title and is different from other jobs. For example peon, typist, mail clerk, salesman, nurses, accountants etc.
A task is an act which is performed as part of job. It refers to a distinct work activity with an identifiable beginning and end. For instance, planning is one of the tasks of the manager.
It is an obligation for a worker to do a job as part of a legal or moral reason. It means a related sequence of tasks. For example pickup, sort and deliver incoming mail.
It implies a collection of tasks and duties regularly assigned to one person. Several persons may be classified under the same job but each may perform different work. For instance, a cash clerk might deal with the receipt and disbursement of cash, a bill clerk deal with bills and an accounts clerk might be in charge of accounts keeping and maintenance.
An occupation implies a group of jobs which are similar as to the type of work and which contain common characteristics. For example business is an occupation consisting of several types of jobs like production, sales etc.
It broadly refers to an employee’s progression in his or work life. It indicates the chronological sequence of positions occupied by an individual in his or her profession.