Job Analysis – Definition, Uses, Process, Techniques

Process of Job Analysis

Job analysis is a sequential process undergoing the following steps

 1. Organizational Analysis

First of all an  overall view  of various jobs   in the organisation  is obtained. This  is required  to judge  the linkages between jobs  and  the organisational  goals,  interrelationships   among jobs,  and  the  contribution  of various jobs  to efficiency and  effectiveness of the organisation.  For this  purpose,  background information is collected in the form  of organisation charts, class  specifications, work flow charts,  etc.  Organisation  charts   show  the  relation  of the job  with  other  jobs  in the  organisation.  Class  specifications describe the  general requirements   of the job family. Work  flow charts   indicate the  flow of activities involved in  a job.

  1. Organising Job Anatysts Programme

It is necessary  to plan  and  organize the  programme   and   must   assign   responsibilities.   A budget  and   a  time   schedule should be  developed.

  1. Deciding the  Uses   of Job   Analysis Information

It has  been  stated   above that  information generated by job  analysis can be utilized for practically all functions of human resource management. Nevertheless, it is desirable to focus  on a few priority areas  in which  the job  analysis information is to be used.  These  areas   can be decided on  the  basis   of the  need,   priorities  and  constraints  of the  particular   organisation. How the job  information will be used  and  for what  purpose  will determine  the extent to which  jobs   are  to be  analyzed.

  1. Selecting Representative     Jobs    for   Analysis

It would   be  highly  time consuming  and  costly  to  analyze all  the  jobs.   It is,  therefore,  desirable  to  select  a representative sample of jobs  for the purpose of detailed analysis. Priorities of various jobs  needing analysis can  also  be  determined.

  1. Understand Job Design. The job analyst should obtain  information concerning

the current design of the  representative job.  For this  purpose,  current job  description and  job  specification.  procedure  manual,  systems flow charts,  etc.  can  be  studied.

  1. Collection of Data  

In this  step,  data  on the  characteristics   of the job,  and qualifications and  behaviour  required  to do the job  effectively is collected. Data  may be collected from  the  employees who  actually perform the job,  or from  their  super- visors  or  from   outsiders   called   trade   job  analysts  appointed  to  watch   employees performing the job.  Several techniques  are  available for job  analysis. Care  should be taken  to  use  only  those   techniques  which   are  acceptable  and  reliable  in  the  given situation.

  1. Developing a Job   Description.

This step involves describing the content of the job in terms of functions, duties, responsibilities, operations etc. The job holder is required to discharge the duties and responsibilities and perform the operations listed in job description.

  1. Preparing a Job   Specification. 

This step involves conversion of the job description statements into a job specification. Job specifications is a written statement of personal attributes in terms of traits, skills. Training, experience needed to carry out the job.

Purpose of Job Analysis

It is very important to identify and well define the purpose of job analysis. In this regard, following points must be considered

  •  If the organisation does not have a person who is well trained to conduct it effectively then job analysis consultant prove to be extremely helpful as they offer unbiased advice, guidelines and methods. Therefore, it will be good to analyse a job without any personal likes and dislikes.
  • It is necessary to have a planned approach about how to carry the whole process in order to investigate a specific job.
  • If the person is not an expert then it is extremely important to schedule training for the job analyst.
  • It is also mandatory for the HR Managers to communicate the whole thing properly. So, that employees offer their full support.
  • It is required to very careful and conscious while collecting data related to educational qualifications of employees, skills and abilities required to perform the job.
  • Logical, rational and analytical approach is required to verify the authenticity of collected data as it will be the final information to describe a specific job.
  • Job description and job specification also needs to be dealt carefully as job description will describe the roles, activities, duties and responsibilities of the job and job specification will describe educational qualifications, experience, personal traits required to perform a job.

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