Direction/Directing- Meaning, Definitions, Features, Importance, Principles, Techniques and Models

Models of Directing

Keith Davis identified following models of organizational behavior.

1. Autocratic Model

2. Custodial Model

3. Supportive Model

4. Collegial Model

1.  Autocratic Model

Decisions are taken by the manager and there is no role of subordinates under this model they use authority/power to get the things done which actually represents traditional thinking.

  • Subordinates are motivated through physiological needs. Better performance is ensured through fear, threats and punishment.
  • For this model close and strict supervision is required.
  • One way communication, i.e., downward.
  • No opportunity to subordinates to voice their opinion.
  • Based on the concept that subordinates have no right/ability to voice their opinion.
  • Generally, it is useful with lower strata of the organization.

2  Custodial Models

This model is quite similar to patrimonial approach, where management completely decides what is good for employee. It is predominant in family managed business organizations.

  • Employees become   highly   dependent   on   the organization.
  • It resembles Herzberg’s theory- maintenance factors.
  • Maintenance factors provide security but fail to produce motivation.
  • Employee feels happy and secure. In such model Performance level is not very high. It is not suitable for matured employees.

3. Supportive Model

In this model focus is mainly on participation and involvement of employees in -managerial decision making process. It is more dependent upon leadership than on the use of power or money. This model is based on ‘principles of supportive relationships’. Here everybody is given an opportunity to come out with their viewpoints. This model is based on the assumptions that human beings move towards maturity level and it helps employees to fulfill their higher-order needs such as esteem and self-actualization.

4. Collegial Model

This model is a step ahead of supportive model, which is based on team concept. Here, each employee develops understanding for his and other’s need; therefore, work towards common goal-best suitable for senior professionals towards common goal. There is no monitoring, but self-discipline-organizational climate is quite conducive to self-fulfillment and self-actualization.


Management Model

Miles identified three models of management.

1. Traditional Model

This model is based on the assumption that no one likes to work and only few workers are creative and self-disciplined. It is the responsibility of manager to supervise and control his subordinate. The manager should give the instructions into clear, simple, short and easy way. If boss is considerate, then the subordinates will tolerate him. Subordinates will only show better performance only if they are being closely controlled and work is quite simple.

2. Human Relations Model

This model is based on the assumption that people want to feel useful and important. Money takes the secondary position but the above mentioned needs are primary in this case. It is the responsibility of manager to make every subordinate feel important and useful. The manager should keep his subordinates well informed and listen them. He must show his subordinates to exercise some self-direction and self-control. If the information are shared then subordinates will feel important. Subordinates will be satisfied in this way and will cooperate willingly.

3. Human Resource Model

This model is based on the assumption that it is not that work is not liked by all rather people want to contribute to meaningful goods and feel satisfied on its completion.

  • People are, naturally creative, self-responsible, self-directed and self-controlled; this is the difference between animals and human beings, which needs to be controlled by others.
  • The manager’s responsibility is to tap the inner potential of every individual and make use of it.
  • No forcible action or use of authority should be there but the environment of that kind has to be created which facilitates better performance.
  • The manager should motivate and enthuse the subordinates by applying leadership skills.
  • Subordinates’ satisfaction at all levels will lead to direct improvements in operating efficiency.
  • When subordinates’ full resources are being utilized; then work satisfaction comes as a byproduct.

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