Database Management System (DBMS) – Meaning, Characteristics and Components

Components of DBMS

A database management system (DBMS) consists of several components. Each component plays very important role in the database management system environment. The major components of database management system are:

  • Software
  • Hardware
  • Data
  • Procedures
  • Users
  1. Software

The main component of a DBMS is the software. It is the set of programs used to handle the database and to control and manage the overall computerized database. DBMS software itself, is the most important software component in the overall system.

2. Hardware

Consists of a set of physical electronic devices such as computers, I/O devices, storage devices, etc., this provides the interface between computers and the real world systems.

3. Data
DBMS exists to collect, store, process and access data, the most important component. The database contains both the actual or operational data and the metadata.

4. Procedures

Procedures refer to the instructions and rules that help to design the database and to use the DBMS. The users that operate and manage the DBMS require documented procedures on hot use or run the database management system. These may include.

  • Procedure to install the new DBMS.
  • To log on to the DBMS.
  • To use the DBMS or application program.
  • To make backup copies of database.
  • To change the structure of database.
  • To generate the reports of data retrieved from database.

5. Users

The users are the people who manage the databases and perform different operations on the databases in the database system. There are three kinds of people who play different roles in database system

  • Application Programmers
  • Database Administrators
  • End-Users

Application Programmers

The people who write application programs in programming languages (such as Visual Basic, Java, or C++) to interact with databases are called Application Programmer.

Database Administrators 

A person who is responsible for managing the overall database management system is called database administrator or simply DBA.


The end-users are the people who interact with database management system to perform different operations on database such as retrieving, updating, inserting, deleting data etc.

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