Meaning, Definition, Elements, Process, Types, Techniques and Barriers
Concept & Definitions
Controlling is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, directing and staffing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standers are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in desired manner. Some important definition of controlling is given below.
According to Terry and Franklin
“Controlling is determining; what is being accomplished-that is evaluating performance and, if necessary applying corrective measures so that the performance takes place according to plans.” Henri Fayol “Control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the orders which have been given, and the principles which have been laid down. Its object is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring.”
According to EFL Breach
“Control is checking current performance against predetermined standards contained in the plans, with a view to ensure adequate progress and satisfactory performance.”
According to Harold Koontz
“Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and plans devised to attain them are accomplished.”
Elements of Controlling
There are four basic elements of control
(i)The condition\characteristic to be controlled
The first element is the characteristic or condition of the operating system which is to be measured. There is a specific correlation between the characteristic to be controlled and how the system is performing. For example the hours a teacherworks or the gain in knowledge demonstrated by the students on a national examination are examples of characteristics that may be selected for measurement, or control.
The sensor is a means for measuring the characteristics or condition. It is must for the controlling system to include sensor while designing as a method of measurement. For example in Quality Control System this measurement might be performed by a visual inspection of the product.
The comparator, determines the need for corrective measures after having comparison between what is occurring and what has been planned. Some variations is expected but if it goes beyond normal parameters then correction needs to be done.
(iv) The Activator
The activator is the corrective action taken to return the system to expected output. The actual person, device or method used to direct corrective inputs into the operating system may take a variety or forms. It is required when the things are not happening in congruence to the plan. As long as a plan is performed within allowable limits, corrective action is not required, however, it is an idealistic situation. Usually, controlling is very necessary in every organisation and in every department.