5. Herbert Simon
i. Herbert Alexander Simon, a Nobel Prize laureate, was an American political scientist, economist, sociologist, psychologist, and computer scientist.
ii. Simon was a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence, creating with Allen Newell the Logic Theory Machine (1956) and the General Problem Solver (GPS) (1957) programs.
iii. Coined the term bounded rationality.
iv. His Contributions:
- Concept of Organization
- Decision Making
- Bounded Rationality : Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the available information, the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision. Decision-makers in this view act as satisficers, seeking a satisfactory solution rather than an optimal one.
- Administrative Man
- Organization Communication: Herbert Simon said communication is vital to organization.
- “Administrative Behavior: a Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization”
6. Peter Drucker
i. Nature of Management
ii. Peter Drucker is against bureaucratic management and according to him the basic objective of the management is to lead towards innovation.
iii. Management by Objectives
iv. Federalism : Federalism refers to centralized control in decentralized structure. In a federal organization, local managements should participate in the decision that set the limits of their own authority.
- The Effective Executive (1966)
- The Practice of Management (1954)
- Managing Oneself (2008)
- What makes an Effective Executive (2107)
i. Elton Mayo(1880 – 1949) was an Australian psychologist, an industrial researcher and an academic organizational management scientist.
ii. He is best known for his work on the Hawthorne Studies.
iii. Fathers of the human relations movement.
iv. Gave close attention to the human, social, and political problems of industrial civilization.
v. He emphasized that alongside the formal organization of an industrial workplace there exists an informal organizational structure as well
- The Human Problems of an Industrialized Civilization (1933)
- The social problems of an industrial civilization
8. Mary Parker Follett
i. Mary Parker Follett(September 3, 1868 – December 18, 1933) was an American social worker, management consultant, philosopher and pioneer in the fields of organizational theory and organizational behavior.
ii. Along with Lillian Gilbreth, she was one of two great women management experts in the early days of classical management theory.
iii. She has been called the “Mother of Modern Management”
iv. One of the founder of Behavioural Science Approach.
v. She emphasized that management must be regarded as a social process.
vi. Believed that management was “the art of getting things done through people.”
vii. Regarding to power Follett used the term “integration,” to refer to noncoercive power-sharing based on the use of her concept of “power with” rather than “power over.”
viii. She recognized the holistic nature of community and advanced the idea of “reciprocal relationships” in understanding the dynamic aspects of the individual in relationship to others.
ix. Follett advocated the principle of integration, “power sharing”.
x. Her ideas on negotiation, power, and employee participation were influential in the development of organizational studies.
xi. She was a pioneer of community centres.
xii. Her ideas were formulated in three principles:
- Functions are specific task areas within organizations. The appropriate degree of authority and responsibility should be allocated to them so tasks can be accomplished.
- Responsibility is expressed in terms of an empirical duty: People should manage their responsibility on the basis of evidence and should integrate this effectively with the functions of others.
- Authority flows from an entitlement to exercise power, which is based upon legitimate authority.
- The Speaker of the House of Representatives (1896)
- The New State (1918)
- Creative Experience (1924)
- Dynamic Administration (1941)