You Are Browsing ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Posted on May 7 2018 - 10:50pm by admin
#5

Leadership Theories There are many ways to understand leadership that has been developed in an attempt to explain why individuals become leaders and why some leaders are more effective than others. Many theoretical approaches are available to study leadership. Some important theories are discussed below: 1. Charismatic Leadership Theory Charismatic leadership theory can be traced back to ancient times. Subsequent studies based on these insights have suggested that ‘a leader is born and is not made’. A leader has some charisma which...

Posted on May 5 2018 - 10:12pm by admin
#1

Theory Z of Motivation Theory Z was developed by William Ouchi in 1981. It describes the major postulates of Japanese management practices and how these practices can be adopted to the environment of United States and other countries. It provides a complete transformation of motivational aspect of employees which other theories are not able to emphasize. It is not...

Posted on May 5 2018 - 12:48pm by admin
#1

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor’s in his book “the human side of Enterprise” published in 1960, explained two different kinds of theories or assumptions about human behavior. They are theory X and theory Y. Theory X holds a negative (traditional) view of the workers while theory Y holds a much refined and positive view of workers. Theory...

Posted on May 3 2018 - 4:17pm by admin
#0

Equity Theory of Motivation Equity Theory was developed by James Stacy Adam. It was published in the journal, Experimental Social Psychology, 1965, New York titles ‘Inequality in Social Exchange’. The theory is also known as Adam’s Inequity Theory of Motivation. It is a cognitive-centered theory as it is basically concerned with the person himself, his beliefs,...

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation Expectancy model was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964. Criticizing   the content   theories   of motivation   which  are based   on the needs  of people  and  their priority.   Vroom  has  presented    an  alternative    theory   which  is  based   on  motivation    process. Various...

Alderfer’s ERG Theory An extension of the Herzberg theory and Maslow’s need hierarchy theory comes from the work of Clayton Alderfer. He formulated a need category model that was more in line with the existing empirical evidence. Like Maslow and Herzberg, he does feel that there is value in categorizing needs and that there is a basic distinction between lower...

Posted on Apr 21 2018 - 12:17am by admin
#0

HERZBERG’S  MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY(Two Factor Theory)   The psychologist Frederick Herzberg extended the work of Maslow and proposed a new motivation theory also known as Two factor theory. He conducted a research study of 200 accountants and engineers employed by firms in and around Western Pennsylvania. He asked these people to describe two important...

Posted on Apr 17 2018 - 11:04pm by admin
#0

MASLOW’S  NEED  HIERARCHY The most widely recognized theory of motivation is the needs hierarchy theory. Abraham Maslow suggested that people have a complex set of exceptionally strong needs, which can be arranged in a hierarchy. These needs are: Physiological needs The  physiological  needs  are  at the top  of the hierarchy    because   they...

Posted on Apr 11 2018 - 10:27pm by admin
#0

Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is an attitude that people have about their job. It is a set of favourable or unfavourable feelings and emotions with which employees view their work. Job satisfaction describes a positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. Definition According to DuBrins Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure...

Posted on Apr 11 2018 - 6:00pm by admin
#0

Social Facilitation Effect   Social facilitation effect refers to the tendency for performance to improve or decline in response to the presence of others. Though this tendency is applicable to individual performance also as some individuals do better in presence of some but poor in presence of some others. Because of operation of social facilitation effect and...