Scientific Management – Meaning, Principles, Techniques, Criticism

Scientific Management Meaning, Definitions, Principles, Techniques, Criticism Scientific management was propounded by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who is the father, of Scientific Management. Apart from Taylor other contributors to S.M. include Frank B. Gilbreth , Morris L. Cooke, Henry L. Gantt and Harrington Emerson etc. According to the definition given by F.W. Taylor “ Scientific […]

Stress Management – Individual and Organizational Coping Strategies

Stress Management Stress management is required when an individual is unable to cope with the demanding environment. This inability generated anxiety and produces defensive behavior and stress symptoms. Therefore, the actions are required for developing adaptive behavior so as to overcome the consequences of stress. Such actions may be taken at individual level as well […]

Stress & Stress Management – Meaning, Definitions, Features, Causes, Burnout, Rustout

Stress  and  Stress Management Modern life is full of stress. Stress on individuals ranges from personal day-to-day life to their organizational activities. Urbanisation, industrialisation, and increase in scale of operations in the society are causing increasing stresses. Different psychologists and physiologists have defined stress differently. In simple words, stress refers to pressures or tensions people […]

Power and Authority – Meaning, Definitions, Types and Theories

Power and Authority   Power Meaning Term ‘power’ has been derived from Latin word potere which means ‘to be able.’ Power is more concerned with leadership than managership. It is a means to influence attitude and behaviour of followers. Leaders must acquire power and should use it with care to create, modify, and sustain positive […]

Interpersonal Behaviour- Transactional Behaviour

Interpersonal Behaviour Interpersonal behavior is the interaction between two or more persons. It is imperative to building and maintaining any type of relationship in our social world. However, when looking at interpersonal behavior in the workplace, things become a little more complicated. People spend a large portion of their time in an organisation interacting with […]

Organizing – Concept of Organization and Organizing -Meaning, Definitions, Process and Theories

Concept of Organization and Organizing The Organizing Function of Management Organizing comes after the completion of the creative phase of planning through which managers are able to define what is to be done; now the question arises who will do it. Then it is also the responsibility of managers to define who will do what […]

Planning – Meaning, Nature, Features, Types, Process and Barriers

Planning Meaning, Nature, Features, Types, Process and Barriers   Planning Planning involves the determination of future course of action. It is a mental process requiring the use of intellectual faculties, foresight and sound judgement. It is one of the basic managerial functions. Definitions of Planning According to Koontz and 0′ Donnell “Planning is deciding in […]

Individual Differences – Meaning, Definitions, Types and Causes

Individual differences Meaning, Definitions, Types, Causes, Accommodating Individual Differences in Schools and Classrooms   Meaning of Individual Difference Individual Difference is a universal phenomenon. It is said that no two individuals are exactly alike. They differ from each other in some way or the other. Such a similarity or difference between persons reveals individual differences. […]

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