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Leadership Theories There are many ways to understand leadership that has been developed in an attempt to explain why individuals become leaders and why...

Theory Z of Motivation Theory Z was developed by William Ouchi in 1981. It describes the major postulates of Japanese management practices and how these...

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor’s in his book “the human side of Enterprise” published in 1960, explained two different kinds...

Equity Theory of Motivation Equity Theory was developed by James Stacy Adam. It was published in the journal, Experimental Social Psychology, 1965, New...

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation Expectancy model was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964. Criticizing   the content   theories   of motivation ...

Alderfer’s ERG Theory An extension of the Herzberg theory and Maslow’s need hierarchy theory comes from the work of Clayton Alderfer. He formulated...

HERZBERG’S  MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY(Two Factor Theory)   The psychologist Frederick Herzberg extended the work of Maslow and proposed a new...

MASLOW’S  NEED  HIERARCHY The most widely recognized theory of motivation is the needs hierarchy theory. Abraham Maslow suggested that people have...

Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is an attitude that people have about their job. It is a set of favourable or unfavourable feelings and emotions with...

Social Facilitation Effect   Social facilitation effect refers to the tendency for performance to improve or decline in response to the presence of...