“Intelligence is a state of grasping the truth, involving reason, concerned with action about what is good or bad for human being”.
“Artificial is, what is not real or natural”.
We may term intelligence possessed by human beings as real intelligence because human beings develop this intelligence on their own. Hence artificial intelligence is the intelligence which is created by human beings by applying various scientific and engineering techniques. The term Artificial Intelligence was coined by John McCarthy in 1956.
Different researchers have defined the term based on their own research and understanding of the subject.
“AI is concerned with designing intelligent computer systems which exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior”
– Barr and Feignenbaum
“AI is the study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better”.
– Rich and Knight
“AI is the automation of activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision making, problem solving, and learning”.
“The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behaviour”
– Luger and Stubblefield
“AI is the part of computer science concerned with designing intelligent computer systems i.e. systems that exhibit characteristics that we associate with intelligence in human behaviour”.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
- Game Playing
Complex games like checkers, chess, bridge etc. are difficult enough that it takes years for gifted adults to master them. All games require seeing patterns, making plans, searching combinations, judging alternative moves, and learning from experience, all being skills which are involved in many daily tasks. So game playing has become one of the research areas of artificial intelligence. There are machines that can play master level chess. There is AI in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute force computation-looking at hundreds of thousands of positions.