Nipah Virus Outbreak

Nipah Virus- Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Nipah virus is an RNA virus that is part of the Paramyxovidae family that was first identified as a zoonotic pathogen after an outbreak involving severe respiratory illness in pigs and encephalitic disease in humans in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998 and 1999. Nipah virus can be transmitted to […]

Leadership Styles

Leadership Styles Leadership is practiced by leadership style. James Stoner defines leadership style as “ Styles are the various patterns of behavior favoured by leaders during the process of directing and influencing workers.” Thus leadership style is a specific way, method or pattern of a leader to lead followers. It represents leader’s philosophy, skills and […]

Leadership Theories

Leadership Theories There are many ways to understand leadership that has been developed in an attempt to explain why individuals become leaders and why some leaders are more effective than others. Many theoretical approaches are available to study leadership. Some important theories are discussed below: 1. Charismatic Leadership Theory Charismatic leadership theory can be traced […]

Theory Z

Theory Z of Motivation Theory Z was developed by William Ouchi in 1981. It describes the major postulates of Japanese management practices and how these practices can be adopted to the environment of United States and other countries. It provides a complete transformation of motivational aspect of employees which other theories are not able to emphasize. […]

Theory X and Theory Y

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor’s in his book “the human side of Enterprise” published in 1960, explained two different kinds of theories or assumptions about human behavior. They are theory X and theory Y. Theory X holds a negative (traditional) view of the workers while theory Y holds a much refined and […]

Equity Theory

Equity Theory of Motivation Equity Theory was developed by James Stacy Adam. It was published in the journal, Experimental Social Psychology, 1965, New York titles ‘Inequality in Social Exchange’. The theory is also known as Adam’s Inequity Theory of Motivation. It is a cognitive-centered theory as it is basically concerned with the person himself, his […]

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation Expectancy model was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964. Criticizing   the content   theories   of motivation   which  are based   on the needs  of people  and  their priority.   Vroom  has  presented    an  alternative    theory   which  is  based   on  motivation    process. Various  theories   which  are based  on motivation   process   are more  concerned   with  […]

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